2005 Summer Volume 2:2 Articles:
Landfast sea ice is the largely stationary ice attached to the coasts of ice-covered seas. It is important to arctic coastal communities, which use it as an extension of the land for travel and to hunt marine mammals associated with the landfast ice and the adjacent system of leads.
Polynyas are recurring regions of open water and thin ice within the polar sea ice cover, having intermittent openings and closings during winter. The large heat and salt fl uxes related to the rapid ice formation and subsequent release of brine during polynya openings play key roles in coupling atmospheric heat loss with sea ice mass balance and oceanic circulation, particularly in the formation and maintenance of deep water layers in polar oceans.
Oceanic phytoplankton consists of many species, and dinoflagellates are among those phytoplankton species that cause reddish discoloration of surface waters when they bloom and accumulate near the surface. These conspicuous blooms, known as red tides, are of interest because they can have significant negative consequences for coastal marine life, fisheries and human health.